# computer graphics circle algorithm with code examples

Computer graphics is a field that has revolutionized the way we communicate visually. It involves creating digital images and animations using various algorithms. One of the well-known algorithms for drawing circles is the Bresenham’s Circle Algorithm. The Bresenham’s Circle Algorithm is an efficient algorithm that draws circles on the computer screen without using floating-point arithmetic.

However, there is another algorithm for drawing circles known as the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm. The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm is an efficient algorithm for drawing circles on the computer screen. It is based on the concept of a midpoint and incrementally determines the locations of points on the circumference of a circle utilizing only integer operations.

In this article, we will discuss the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm in detail along with its code examples.

Overview of Mid-Point Circle Algorithm

The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm requires the user to provide the center and radius of the circle to be drawn on the computer screen. The algorithm then generates pixel coordinates of points on the circumference of the circle based on the midpoint.

The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm involves the following steps:

1. Initialize the center and radius of the circle.
2. Calculate the initial point on the circumference.
3. Calculate the next point on the circumference using the midpoint.
4. Draw the calculated pixel.
5. Repeat steps 3-4 until we have drawn a complete circle.

Code Example of Mid-Point Circle Algorithm

Here is the implementation of the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm in C++:

```#include <graphics.h>

void midPointCircleAlgo(int X, int Y, int radius)
{
int x, y, p;
x = 0;
while (x <= y)
{
putpixel(X+x, Y+y, 7);
putpixel(X+y, Y+x, 7);
putpixel(X-x, Y+y, 7);
putpixel(X-y, Y+x, 7);
putpixel(X-x, Y-y, 7);
putpixel(X-y, Y-x, 7);
putpixel(X+x, Y-y, 7);
putpixel(X+y, Y-x, 7);
x++;
if (p < 0)
{
p += 2*x+1;
}
else
{
y--;
p += 2*(x-y)+1;
}
}
}

int main()
{
int gd, gm = VGAMAX;
gd = DETECT;
initgraph(&gd,&gm,NULL);
int X = 320, Y = 240, radius = 100;
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}
```

In this example, we have used the graphics.h library to implement the algorithm, which is a popular library for graphics programming in C++. The midPointCircleAlgo function takes three arguments—the X and Y coordinates of the center of the circle and the radius of the circle.

Inside the function, we first set the initial values of x, y, and p. We then use a while loop to calculate the pixel coordinates of points on the circumference of the circle using the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm.

We draw the calculated pixel using the putpixel function. The putpixel function takes the X and Y coordinates of the pixel and a color code as arguments. In this example, we have used color code 7 to represent white color.

Finally, we use the initgraph, getch, and closegraph functions to initialize the graphics and close the graphics screen after execution.

Conclusion

The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm is an efficient algorithm for drawing circles on the computer screen. It is based on the concept of a midpoint and utilizes only integer operations to calculate the pixel coordinates of points on the circumference of the circle. We have discussed the steps involved in the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm and implemented it using C++ programming language. Graphic libraries such as graphics.h can be used to implement the algorithm and draw various shapes on the computer screen.

Computer Graphics

Computer graphics is a field of computer science that deals with generating and manipulating visual imagery on a computer. It involves creating digital images, animations, and videos using algorithms and techniques such as rendering, modeling, animation, and, most importantly, computer programming.

Computer graphics are used in various domains, such as film and video game production, scientific visualization, and in computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The field of computer graphics is continually evolving with advancements in graphics hardware and software and new techniques to improve the visual realism and quality of computer graphics.

There are various algorithms and techniques available for performing specific tasks in computer graphics. One such algorithm is the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm, which is used to draw circles on the computer screen efficiently.

Mid-Point Circle Algorithm

The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm is a popular algorithm used to draw circles on the computer screen. It gives accurate circle images using only integer arithmetic, without the need for any floating-point operations.

This algorithm was developed by J. E. Bresenham in 1965 as a procedure for generating digital circles quickly and efficiently. It is also known as the Bresenham Circle Algorithm.

The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm is based on the following principles:

• The circle's diameter is continuously divided in half to locate the mid-point.
• The mid-point of a circle is the center of a new circle.
• The error made at the midpoint is used to determine which pixels to color.

This algorithm works by incrementally calculating the next pixel positions based on the current pixel's error value and the direction of the circle. It is typically faster than the traditional algorithm that uses trigonometric functions and floating-point operations.

Though the Bresenham Circle Algorithm is more efficient than other circle algorithms, it has a few limitations. It can only create circles whose radius is greater than 1, and it can only draw eight pixels per iteration. Also, the Bresenham Circle Algorithm doesn't work well with circles that have a non-integer radius.

Conclusion

Computer graphics are a powerful tool for creating visual imagery on a computer, from simple icons to complex animations. Circle algorithms, such as the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm, are essential components of computer graphics.

The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm is a popular algorithm for creating circles using only integer arithmetic, and it's more efficient than other circle algorithms. But it has its limitations, and other algorithms exist that are better suited for different circle-drawing tasks. The field of computer graphics continues to evolve, and new techniques and algorithms are being discovered regularly to improve the visual quality and realism of computer graphics.

## Popular questions

1. What is the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm used for?
Answer: The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm is used to draw circles on the computer screen efficiently, using only integer arithmetic, without the need for any floating-point operations.

2. What is the difference between the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm and the Bresenham's Circle Algorithm?
Answer: Both algorithms are used to draw circles on the computer screen. However, Bresenham's Circle Algorithm is the more traditional algorithm, while the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm is more efficient and calculates the pixel positions incrementally using the current pixel's error value and the direction of the circle.

3. What are the steps involved in the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm?
Answer: The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm requires the user to provide the center and radius of the circle to be drawn on the computer screen. The algorithm then generates pixel coordinates of points on the circumference of the circle based on the midpoint. The steps involved in the algorithm are initializing the center and radius of the circle, calculating the initial point on the circumference, calculating the next point on the circumference using the midpoint, drawing the calculated pixel, and repeating these steps until the whole circle is drawn.

4. What is the graphics.h library used for in the code example?
Answer: The graphics.h library is a popular library for graphics programming in C++. It is used in the code example to implement the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm and to draw the circle on the computer screen.

5. Are there any limitations to the Mid-Point Circle Algorithm?
Answer: The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm can only create circles whose radius is greater than 1, and it can only draw eight pixels per iteration. Additionally, it doesn't work well with circles that have a non-integer radius.

### Tag

"GraphicsCircuits"

##### Deeksha Sudhakar
As a seasoned software engineer, I bring over 7 years of experience in designing, developing, and supporting Payment Technology, Enterprise Cloud applications, and Web technologies. My versatile skill set allows me to adapt quickly to new technologies and environments, ensuring that I meet client requirements with efficiency and precision. I am passionate about leveraging technology to create a positive impact on the world around us. I believe in exploring and implementing innovative solutions that can enhance user experiences and simplify complex systems. In my previous roles, I have gained expertise in various areas of software development, including application design, coding, testing, and deployment. I am skilled in various programming languages such as Java, Python, and JavaScript and have experience working with various databases such as MySQL, MongoDB, and Oracle.
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