Python is a high-level, interpreted, and general-purpose programming language. It’s used extensively in web application development, data analysis, machine learning, and artificial intelligence, among other fields. Python’s popularity is growing at a tremendous pace. In this article, we’ll explore the current year in Python and cover some of the new features and improvements that came with it.

Python Version

Python is currently in version 3.9.2. This version was released on February 19, 2021. It includes bug fixes, security patches, and new features. Among the most notable changes in Python 3.9.2 are improvements to type hinting, improved precision in the math module, and better documentation for built-in libraries.

Type Hinting

Type hinting is a relatively new feature in Python, introduced in version 3.5. It provides a way to specify the expected types of function arguments and return values. This can help catch errors early and improve the readability of code. In Python 3.9.2, type hinting has been improved with the addition of Union types, which allow for more flexible type hinting.

Here’s an example:

```
def square(number: Union[int, float]) -> Union[int, float]:
return number * number
```

This function takes a number argument of either an integer or a float and returns the square of that number, which can also be an integer or float.

Improved Math Module

The math module in Python provides a range of mathematical functions. In Python 3.9.2, the math module has been improved with the addition of some new functions and improved precision in existing ones.

One of the new functions added is the math.lgamma() function. This function computes the logarithm of the absolute value of the gamma function.

Another improved function is math.isqrt(). This function calculates the integer square root of a number. It is now much faster than previous versions of Python because it uses a bit shift-based algorithm instead of a division-based algorithm.

Here’s an example:

```
import math
print(math.lgamma(5.5))
print(math.isqrt(15))
```

This code will output:

```
1.6786601391714936
3
```

Better Documentation

Python has always been known for its extensive standard library. With Python 3.9.2, the built-in libraries have been documented even better. The documentation now includes more examples, and the syntax for each module’s functions and methods is explained in detail.

To access the documentation for any Python module, you can use the help() function. Here’s an example:

```
import math
help(math)
```

This will display the math module’s documentation in your console.

Conclusion

Python 3.9.2 comes with many new features and improvements that make it an even better choice for developers. Type hinting is now more flexible with the addition of Union types, the math module has been improved with new functions and better precision, and the built-in libraries are better documented than ever before. As Python continues to evolve, we can expect even more exciting features in future versions.

Type Hinting

Type hinting is a powerful feature that can make code more readable by providing context for function arguments and returns. In previous versions of Python, type hinting was limited to a single type. For example, if you wanted to specify that a function took an argument of type int, you would do this:

```
def square(number: int) -> int:
return number * number
```

However, in Python 3.9.2, Union types have been added to type hinting. Union types allow a developer to specify that a function argument or return can be more than one type. This is particularly useful when dealing with functions that can accept arguments of multiple types.

Here’s an example:

```
def add(a: Union[int, float], b: Union[int, float]) -> Union[int, float]:
return a + b
```

This function takes two arguments, a and b, which can be either integers or floats. It returns the sum of the two numbers, which can also be an integer or a float.

This is just one example of how Union types can make code more flexible and allow it to handle a wider range of input. As developers come up with more use cases for Union types, we can expect them to become even more commonly used in Python code.

Improved Math Module

The math module in Python provides a wide range of mathematical functions. In Python 3.9.2, the math module has undergone some significant improvements, including better precision and new functions.

One of the new functions added to the math module is math.lgamma(). This function computes the logarithm of the absolute value of the gamma function. The gamma function is used in many statistical and probability calculations. The addition of this function to the math module makes it easier for developers to perform these types of calculations.

Another function that has been improved in Python 3.9.2 is math.isqrt(). This function returns the integer square root of a number. In previous versions of Python, this function used a division-based algorithm, which was slow for large values. In Python 3.9.2, the function has been improved with a bit shift-based algorithm, making it much faster.

Overall, the improvements to the math module make it easier for developers to perform complex mathematical calculations and make their code more efficient.

Better Documentation

Python has always been known for its extensive standard library, which includes a wide range of modules that can be used for various tasks. In Python 3.9.2, the documentation for these modules has been significantly improved, making it easier for developers to learn and use them.

The documentation for each module now includes more examples, making it easier to understand how to use each function or method. Additionally, the syntax for each function and method is explained in greater detail, making it easier for developers to understand how to call these functions and use them in their code.

In Python, the help() function can be used to access the documentation for any module. For example, to display the documentation for the math module, you can do this:

```
import math
help(math)
```

This will display the documentation for the math module in your console. The improved documentation in Python 3.9.2 makes it easier for developers to learn and use the standard library and build better Python applications.

## Popular questions

- What is the current version of Python in 2021?

The current version of Python in 2021 is 3.9.2

- What is type hinting and how has it been improved in Python 3.9.2?

Type hinting provides a way to specify the expected types of function arguments and return values in Python. In Python 3.9.2, type hinting has been improved with the addition of Union types, which allow for more flexible type hinting. Union types allow a developer to specify that a function argument or return can be more than one type.

- What kind of improvements have been made to the math module in Python 3.9.2?

Python 3.9.2 includes several improvements to the math module. For example, the math.lgamma() function has been added to compute the logarithm of the absolute value of the gamma function. Also, the math.isqrt() function has been improved with a bit shift-based algorithm, making it much faster.

- What is the purpose of the help() function in Python, and how can it be used?

In Python, the help() function is used to access the documentation for any module. The purpose of this function is to help developers understand how to use each module, including its functions and methods. For example, to display the documentation for the math module, you can do this:

```
import math
help(math)
```

This will display the documentation for the math module in the console.

- How can Union types be used in Python code, and what is their benefit?

Union types in Python code can be used to specify that a function argument or return can be more than one type. This is particularly useful when dealing with functions that can accept arguments of multiple types. For example, you can use Union types to write a function that can take an argument of either an integer or a float. This makes the code more flexible and allows it to handle a wider range of input.

### Tag

Datetime