django form widget with code examples

Django Forms are useful for creating web forms and fields that are interacted with by the user. Django Forms have a collection of widgets that simplifies the process of rendering and handling user input in a web form. A Django Form widget is an HTML representation of input fields and control types used in a form. Django provides a wide range of form widgets that makes it easy for developers to create simple and complex forms with ease.

In this article, we will discuss the different types of form widgets and how to use them by providing step-by-step examples.

Creating Forms in Django

Before we begin, let’s quickly go over how to create forms in Django. First, create a Python file titled ‘forms.py’ inside your Django’s app directory.

You need to import the Django form module (from django import forms) and create a new Django form class that inherits ‘forms.Form’.

from django import forms

class ContactForm(forms.Form):
    name = forms.CharField()
    email = forms.EmailField()
    message = forms.CharField(widget=forms.Textarea)

Here, we created a new form class named ContactForm with three fields: name, email, and message. The first two fields are created using the ‘CharField’ class, and the third field is created using the ‘TextArea’ widget.

Now, let’s dive into each type of Django form widget.

Django Input Widgets

CharField and TextInput

CharField and TextInput widgets create a simple input element in HTML. CharField widget renders an HTML input element with the type attribute set to text, while TextInput widget renders a standard HTML input element.

class ContactForm(forms.Form):
    name = forms.CharField(widget=forms.TextInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Name'}))
    email = forms.EmailField(widget=forms.TextInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Email'}))
    message = forms.CharField(widget=forms.Textarea(attrs={'placeholder': 'Message'}))

In the sample code above, we added the placeholders attribute to the text fields using ‘attrs’. The placeholders attribute sets a hint or placeholder text for the form inputs.

EmailField and EmailInput

EmailField and EmailInput widgets are similar to CharField and TextInput but with email validation added to the input field.

class ContactForm(forms.Form):
    name = forms.CharField(widget=forms.TextInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Name'}))
    email = forms.EmailField(widget=forms.EmailInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Email'}))
    message = forms.CharField(widget=forms.Textarea(attrs={'placeholder': 'Message'}))

PasswordInput

PasswordInput is a widget used for password input fields. It hides the characters as you type for security purposes.

class LoginForm(forms.Form):
    username = forms.CharField(widget=forms.TextInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Username'}))
    password = forms.CharField(widget=forms.PasswordInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Password'}))

HiddenInput

HiddenInput is a widget that creates a hidden input element in HTML that can hold a value not visible to the user.

class LoginForm(forms.Form):
    username = forms.CharField(widget=forms.TextInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Username'}))
    password = forms.CharField(widget=forms.PasswordInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Password'}))
    next = forms.CharField(widget=forms.HiddenInput())

Django Select Widgets

Django Select Widgets are input elements that enable the user to choose from a predefined list of values.

CheckboxInput

CheckboxInput is a widget that creates a checkbox form with an on or off state.

class PizzaForm(forms.Form):
    toppings = forms.MultipleChoiceField(
        choices=(('pep', 'Pepperoni'), ('mush', 'Mushrooms'), ('olv', 'Olives')),
        widget=forms.CheckboxSelectMultiple(),
    )

Here, we created a form with a multiple-choice checkbox that enables Pizza lovers to choose their toppings.

Select and SelectMultiple

Select widget enables the user to make a single choice from a drop-down list of options, while SelectMultiple allows multiple choices from the drop-down list.

class PizzaForm(forms.Form):
    size = forms.ChoiceField(choices=(('s', 'Small'), ('m', 'Medium'), ('l', 'Large')), widget=forms.Select())
    toppings = forms.MultipleChoiceField(choices=(('pep', 'Pepperoni'), ('mush', 'Mushrooms'), ('olv', 'Olives')),
                                         widget=forms.SelectMultiple(),
                                         required=False)

In the code above, we created a pizza form with size and toppings fields. The size field is set to a single choice from a drop-down list, while the toppings field allows multiple choices from a drop-down list.

Django Date Widgets

Django Date Widgets are used for creating input fields that handle date and time data.

DateInput and DateTimeInput

DateInput handles input for a date, while DateTimeInput is similar but handles date and time.

class PizzaForm(forms.Form):
    delivery_date = forms.DateField(widget=forms.DateInput(format='%m/%d/%Y'))
    delivery_time = forms.DateTimeField(widget=forms.DateTimeInput(format='%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S'))

In the code above, we created a Pizza form with delivery_date and delivery_time fields where the delivery_date field is handled by DateInput and the delivery_time field by DateTimeInput.

Conclusion

Django Form widgets are essential for creating interactive forms that a user can fill out. We have explored the different kinds of form widgets Django provides, including input widgets, select widgets, and date widgets. We hope this article has been informative in your understanding and usage of Django Form widgets.

Below is a full working example of a contact form with all the above-discussed widgets.

class ContactForm(forms.Form):
    name = forms.CharField(widget=forms.TextInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Name'}))
    email = forms.EmailField(widget=forms.EmailInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Email'}))
    message = forms.CharField(widget=forms.Textarea(attrs={'placeholder': 'Message'}))
    next = forms.CharField(widget=forms.HiddenInput())
    delivery_date = forms.DateField(widget=forms.DateInput(format='%m/%d/%Y'))
    delivery_time = forms.DateTimeField(widget=forms.DateTimeInput(format='%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S'))

    size = forms.ChoiceField(choices=(('s', 'Small'), ('m', 'Medium'), ('l', 'Large')), widget=forms.Select())

    toppings = forms.MultipleChoiceField(choices=(('pep', 'Pepperoni'), ('mush', 'Mushrooms'), ('olv', 'Olives')),
                                         widget=forms.CheckboxSelectMultiple(),
                                         required=False)

    username = forms.CharField(widget=forms.TextInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Username'}))
    password = forms.CharField(widget=forms.PasswordInput(attrs={'placeholder': 'Password'}))


def contact(request):
    if request.method == 'POST':
        form = ContactForm(request.POST)
        if form.is_valid():
            # do something with form data
            pass
    else:
        form = ContactForm()

    return render(request, 'contact.html', {'form': form})

let's dive into some more details about the previous topics discussed in the article.

Input Widgets

Input Widgets are used to build simple input elements in HTML. There are several input widgets in Django, such as CharField, TextInput, EmailField, and PasswordInput.

CharField and TextInput widgets are used to create text input fields. The CharField widget creates an HTML input element with the type attribute set to text, while TextInput widget creates the standard HTML input element. Both widgets support the maxlength attribute, which sets the maximum number of characters that a user can type in the input field.

The EmailField and PasswordInput widgets are similar to CharField and TextInput, but with some additional features. The EmailField widget includes validation for email input, and the PasswordInput widget generates a field where the characters entered by the user are hidden.

Select Widgets

Select Widgets allow users to choose from a predefined list of values. The Django Select Widgets include CheckboxInput, Select, and SelectMultiple.

CheckboxInput widgets create checkboxes for input fields that can be checked and unchecked by the user. CheckboxInput can be used as a multiple choice input widget, whereby the user can check several boxes, or as a binary input widget, whereby the user can only check one box.

Select and SelectMultiple widgets create drop-down menus where users can choose one or several options, respectively. When using SelectMultiple in a form, the database stores the selected values as a list or a string.

Date Widgets

Django Date Widgets are used for creating input fields that handle date and time data. There are several Date Widgets available in Django, including DateInput, TimeInput, DateTimeInput, and SplitDateTimeWidget.

DateInput and TimeInput widgets allow users to input date or time information through an input field. The DateTimeInput combines both widgets, allowing users to input data for both date and time.

The SplitDateTimeWidget is a two-part widget that breaks down the input field into two separate fields for date and time, allowing users to input data for both separately.

Working Example

In the example provided in the article, we created a contact form using various input, select, and date widgets available in Django. We used TextInput and EmailInput for creating input fields with text and email data type, respectively, and used PasswordInput for creating a password input field.

For select widgets, we used Select and CheckboxSelectMultiple, allowing users to select only one or multiple options, respectively. Additionally, for Date widgets, we used DateInput and DateTimeInput for inputting date and date-time information.

In conclusion, Django Form Widgets make it easy for developers to create web forms with various fields and input types. By using Django's built-in Form Widgets like CharField, FileInput, EmailField, and PasswordInput, developers can provide a clean and user-friendly interface to their users. Using various input, select, and date widgets, we can create interactive forms in Django with minimal effort.

Popular questions

Sure, here are five questions and their corresponding answers:

Q: What is a Django Form Widget?

A: A Django Form Widget is an HTML representation of input fields and control types used in a form. It simplifies the process of rendering and handling user input in a web form.

Q: How do you create a Django form?

A: To create a Django form, you need to create a Python file and import the Django form module. Then, create a new Django form class that inherits from ‘forms.Form’. This class should contain all the fields and their respective widgets that will be used in the form.

Q: Which widgets are used to create text input fields in Django?

A: CharField and TextInput widgets are used to create text input fields in Django. CharField works for fields with short text response, while TextInput widget is for long text expected responses.

Q: What is the difference between Select and SelectMultiple widgets?

A: Select widget creates a drop-down menu where users can choose one option, while SelectMultiple allows users to choose more than one option from the drop-down menu.

Q: What is the purpose of the Placeholder attribute in Django form widgets?

A: The Placeholder attribute is used to provide a hint or placeholder text for the user’s input in the form fields. The Placeholder text in form fields can be used to provide an example of what should be entered into the form input.

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Codeceptional

As an experienced software engineer, I have a strong background in the financial services industry. Throughout my career, I have honed my skills in a variety of areas, including public speaking, HTML, JavaScript, leadership, and React.js. My passion for software engineering stems from a desire to create innovative solutions that make a positive impact on the world. I hold a Bachelor of Technology in IT from Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, which has provided me with a solid foundation in software engineering principles and practices. I am constantly seeking to expand my knowledge and stay up-to-date with the latest technologies in the field. In addition to my technical skills, I am a skilled public speaker and have a talent for presenting complex ideas in a clear and engaging manner. I believe that effective communication is essential to successful software engineering, and I strive to maintain open lines of communication with my team and clients.
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