# how to find third highest salary in sql with code examples

Finding the third highest salary in SQL can be accomplished using a combination of the SELECT, ORDER BY, and LIMIT clauses.

First, we will start with a simple query to select all of the salaries from the relevant table, and order them in descending order:

```SELECT salary FROM employees ORDER BY salary DESC;
```

This will give us a list of all of the salaries in the table, with the highest salary at the top. However, if we want to find the third highest salary, we need to limit the number of rows returned by the query. We can do this using the LIMIT clause:

```SELECT salary FROM employees ORDER BY salary DESC LIMIT 3;
```

This query will return the top 3 salaries in the table, with the highest salary at the top.

If we want to find the third highest salary specifically, we can use a subquery to exclude the top two salaries:

```SELECT salary FROM employees
WHERE salary NOT IN (SELECT salary FROM employees ORDER BY salary DESC LIMIT 2)
ORDER BY salary DESC LIMIT 1;
```

This query uses a subquery to select the top two salaries, and then excludes them from the main query using the NOT IN operator. Finally, it orders the remaining salaries in descending order, and limits the result to one row, which will be the third highest salary.

Another way to find the third highest salary is by using the DENSE_RANK() window function.

```SELECT salary FROM
(SELECT salary, DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY salary DESC) as rank FROM employees) a
WHERE rank = 3;
```

This query uses the DENSE_RANK() function to assign a rank to each salary, based on their descending order. The query then filters out the rows with rank 3 which gives the third highest salary.

In conclusion, finding the third highest salary in SQL can be done by using a combination of the SELECT, ORDER BY, and LIMIT clauses or by using window functions like DENSE_RANK() . It is important to test and compare the performance of these different methods to find the best one for your specific use case.

In addition to finding the third highest salary, there are several other ways to manipulate and extract data from a SQL table. One such technique is using the GROUP BY clause to group rows in a table based on the values in one or more columns. This can be useful for finding the average salary for each department, for example:

```SELECT department, AVG(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department;
```

This query groups the employees by department and calculates the average salary for each group.

Another technique is using the HAVING clause to filter groups based on a specific condition. For example, if you want to find the departments with an average salary greater than \$50,000:

```SELECT department, AVG(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department HAVING AVG(salary) > 50000;
```

This query groups the employees by department, calculates the average salary for each group, and only returns the groups where the average salary is greater than \$50,000.

You can also use the JOIN clause to combine data from multiple tables. For example, if you have a table of employees and a table of departments, you can use a JOIN to combine the data and find the department name for each employee:

```SELECT employees.name, departments.department_name FROM employees
JOIN departments ON employees.department_id = departments.id;
```

You can also use the UNION operator to combine the result of two or more SELECT statements. It will combine the results from multiple SELECT statements into a single result set. The columns in the SELECT statements should have the same data types.

```SELECT salary FROM employees WHERE department = 'IT'
UNION
SELECT salary FROM employees WHERE department = 'Marketing';
```

These are just a few examples of the many ways to manipulate and extract data from a SQL table. With the proper use of clauses, operators, and functions, you can easily retrieve and analyze the data you need to make informed decisions.

## Popular questions

1. What is the simplest query to find the third highest salary in SQL?

The simplest query to find the third highest salary in SQL is:

```SELECT salary FROM employees
ORDER BY salary DESC
LIMIT 3,1;
```

This query selects the salary column from the employees table, orders the results by salary in descending order, and limits the result to the third row, which will be the third highest salary.

1. How can we exclude the top 2 salaries from the query to find the third highest salary?

We can use a subquery to exclude the top 2 salaries from the query to find the third highest salary:

```SELECT salary FROM employees
WHERE salary NOT IN (SELECT salary FROM employees ORDER BY salary DESC LIMIT 2)
ORDER BY salary DESC
LIMIT 1;
```

This query uses a subquery to select the top 2 salaries, and then excludes them from the main query using the NOT IN operator. Finally, it orders the remaining salaries in descending order, and limits the result to one row, which will be the third highest salary.

1. How can we use window functions like DENSE_RANK() to find the third highest salary?

We can use the DENSE_RANK() window function like this:

```SELECT salary FROM
(SELECT salary, DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY salary DESC) as rank FROM employees) a
WHERE rank = 3;
```

This query uses the DENSE_RANK() function to assign a rank to each salary, based on their descending order. The query then filters out the rows with rank 3 which gives the third highest salary.

1. How can we find the average salary for each department using SQL?

We can use the GROUP BY clause to group rows in a table based on the values in one or more columns and the AVG function to find the average salary for each department:

```SELECT department, AVG(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department;
```

This query groups the employees by department and calculates the average salary for each group.

1. How can we filter groups based on a specific condition using SQL?

We can use the HAVING clause to filter groups based on a specific condition. For example, if you want to find the departments with an average salary greater than \$50,000:

```SELECT department, AVG(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department HAVING AVG(salary) > 50000;
```

This query groups the employees by department, calculates the average salary for each group, and only returns the groups where the average salary is greater than \$50,000.

Please note that the examples provided may not work in all database or table structure, and the table and column names may vary depending on the specific database implementation. The examples are provided to give you an idea of how these techniques can be used in practice.

### Tag

SQL

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