Master Python 3 on Mac with These Easy Code Examples and Make It Your Default Language.

Table of content

  1. Introduction
  2. Why Python 3?
  3. Installing Python 3 on Mac
  4. Setting Up Your Environment
  5. Basic Python Syntax
  6. Data Types and Variables
  7. Conditional Statements
  8. Loops
  9. Functions
  10. Object-Oriented Programming
  11. File Handling
  12. Creating GUIs with Python
  13. Setting Python as the Default Language on Mac
  14. Conclusion


Python 3 is a powerful programming language that is highly versatile and widely used by developers for creating applications, web development, data analysis, and more. If you're a Mac user looking to master Python 3 and make it your go-to language for programming, you're in the right place. In this guide, we'll provide you with easy-to-follow code examples and instructions to help you get started with Python 3 on Mac.

Whether you're a beginner or have some programming knowledge, this guide is designed to be accessible to all levels of experience. We'll cover everything from the basics of Python 3 installation and configuration to more advanced topics like creating functions, working with lists and dictionaries, and writing conditional statements. By the end of this guide, you'll have a firm grasp of the fundamentals of Python 3 and be able to confidently use it as your default programming language on Mac. So let's get started!

Why Python 3?

Python 3 is the latest version of the Python programming language. There are several reasons why you should choose Python 3 over its predecessor, Python 2.

Firstly, Python 3 is designed to be more consistent and clear than Python 2. For example, in Python 3, the print statement is replaced by the print function, making it easier to understand and use. Additionally, Python 3 has removed some of the inconsistencies in Python 2, such as the difference between integers and longs.

Secondly, Python 3 has better Unicode support than Python 2. This means that Python 3 can handle non-ASCII characters better than Python 2. This is important because more and more applications use non-ASCII characters, especially in internationalization and localization.

Lastly, Python 3 has added several new features and improvements over Python 2. For example, Python 3 has new modules and libraries that make it easier to write code, such as the pathlib module for file handling and the asyncio library for asynchronous programming.

Overall, choosing Python 3 over Python 2 is a smart decision. Python 3 is the future of the language and offers several improvements over its predecessor. By mastering Python 3, you will be better equipped to write efficient and effective code for a wide range of applications.

Installing Python 3 on Mac

To install Python 3 on Mac, first, open the Terminal app located in the Applications/Utilities folder. Type the command "brew install python3" and press enter. This will install Homebrew, a package manager for Mac, and Python 3.

You can verify the installation by typing "python3 –version" in Terminal. It should display the version number of Python 3.

To make Python 3 your default language, add the following line to your Bash profile: "alias python=python3". This will make the "python" command in terminal execute Python 3 instead of the older version of Python that may already be installed on your Mac.

Now you're ready to start using Python 3 on your Mac. You can write code in any text editor and save it with the .py extension. To execute the code, open Terminal, navigate to the directory containing the .py file, and type "python" and press enter. The code will execute and the program will run in Terminal.

is a straightforward process with the help of Homebrew. Making it your default language requires only one line of code in your Bash profile. Once installed, you can write Python 3 code in any text editor and execute it in Terminal.

Setting Up Your Environment

Before you can start writing and executing Python code on your Mac, you need to ensure that your development environment is set up correctly. Here's how to set up your Python environment on a Mac:

  1. Install Python 3: It's important that you have the latest version of Python installed on your Mac. You can download it from the official Python website, or use a package manager like Homebrew to install it.

  2. Use a code editor: There are several code editors you can use to write Python code on your Mac, including Sublime Text, Atom, and PyCharm. Choose one that you like and install it.

  3. Set up a virtual environment: A virtual environment is a tool that creates an isolated Python environment for each project you work on, so that you can easily manage dependencies and versions. Use the following command to set up a virtual environment:

python3 -m venv env

This command will create a virtual environment in a directory named "env".

  1. Activate the virtual environment: Once you've created a virtual environment, you need to activate it to start using it. Use the following command to activate the virtual environment:
source env/bin/activate
  1. Install packages: You can use the pip package manager to install packages in your virtual environment. For example, if you want to install the NumPy package, you can use the following command:
pip install numpy

By following these steps, you should now have a fully functional Python development environment set up on your Mac. You can start writing and executing Python code using your preferred code editor, and manage dependencies and versions using virtual environments.

Basic Python Syntax

Python is a high-level programming language known for its simplicity and readability, making it an excellent choice for beginners. In this section, we will discuss that you need to know before getting started with Python programming.


Comments are used to explain the code and make it more readable. In Python, a comment starts with a "#" character and continues until the end of the line. For example:

# This is a comment
print("Hello World")


Variables are used to store values in Python. A variable is created when a value is assigned to it. For example:

name = "John"
age = 20

Print statement

The print() statement is used to print output to the console. For example:

print("Hello World")

If statement

The if statement is used to check whether a given condition is true or false. If the condition is true, the code inside the if statement is executed. If the condition is false, the code inside the if statement is skipped. For example:

name = "John"
if name == "John":
    print("Your name is John")

In the above example, the variable name is assigned the value "John", and then the if statement checks whether name is equal to "John". Since the condition is true, the code inside the if statement is executed and "Your name is John" is printed to the console.

In conclusion, having a basic understanding of Python syntax is essential for writing code. This section covered comments, variables, the print statement, and the if statement.

Data Types and Variables

In Python, there are several data types that you can use to store values in your programs. These data types include integers, floating point numbers, strings, and lists.

Integers are whole numbers, positive, negative or zero. For example, 5, -3, and 0 are all integers.

Floating point numbers are decimal numbers with a fractional component. For example, 3.14, -2.5, and 0.0 are all floating point numbers.

Strings are sequences of characters surrounded by either single or double quotes. For example, "hello", 'world', and "Python" are all strings.

Lists are ordered collections of elements, which can be of different data types. For example, [1,2,3], ["hello", "world"], and [1, "two", 3.0] are all lists.

To assign a value to a variable in Python, you use the equals sign (=). For example, to assign the integer value 5 to a variable called "x", you would use the following code:

x = 5

You can also assign values to multiple variables at the same time using a comma-separated list of variable names. For example:

x, y, z = 1, 2, 3

Notice that we can assign multiple values to multiple variables at the same time. In this case, x will have a value of 1, y will have a value of 2, and z will have a value of 3.

You can perform arithmetic operations on variables of the integer and floating point number data types using the standard mathematical operators such as +, -, *, and /. For example:

x = 5
y = 2
z = x + y
print(z) # Output: 7

In this example, we assigned the value 5 to x, and the value 2 to y. We then added the values of x and y together, and assigned the result to the variable z. Finally, we printed the value of z, which is 7.

To check whether a value is equal to another value, you can use the if statement. The if statement allows you to compare two values using the double equals sign (==). For example:

name = "Alice"
if name == "Alice":
    print("Hello Alice!")

In this example, we assigned the string value "Alice" to the variable name. We then used the if statement to check whether the value of name is equal to the string "Alice". Since it is, we printed the message "Hello Alice!".

Conditional Statements

in Python 3 allow you to execute specific code based on certain conditions. The most common type of conditional statement is the if statement.

The basic syntax of an if statement in Python 3 is:

if (condition):
    # code to be executed if condition is true

The condition placed in parentheses after the if keyword can be any expression that evaluates to either True or False. If the condition is True, then the code block indented under the if statement will be executed.

For example, consider the following code:

name = "John"

if name == "John":
    print("Hello John!")

This code will output "Hello John!" because the condition name == "John" is True.

You can also include an else statement to specify code to be executed if the condition is False. The basic syntax is:

if (condition):
    # code to be executed if condition is true
    # code to be executed if condition is false

For example, consider the following code:

name = "Jane"

if name == "John":
    print("Hello John!")
    print("Hello, what's your name?")

This code will output "Hello, what's your name?" because the condition name == "John" is False.

Using is an essential part of programming in Python 3, as it allows you to create code that can adapt to different situations and make decisions based on specific conditions.


are essential in Python programming, allowing you to execute a block of code repeatedly. In Python, there are two types of , for and while.

A for loop is used to iterate through a sequence, such as a list, tuple, or string. The syntax for a for loop is as follows:

fruits = ["apple", "banana", "cherry"]

for fruit in fruits:

This code will iterate over each element in the fruits list and print it out. Note that the indentation is important in Python, as it tells the interpreter what code is inside the loop.

A while loop executes a block of code until a condition is met. For example:

i = 0
while i < 5:
    i += 1

This code will print out the numbers 0 through 4. Note that the i += 1 statement increments the value of i by 1 each time through the loop.

can also be used in conjunction with conditional statements, such as if statements. For example:

fruits = ["apple", "banana", "cherry"]
for fruit in fruits:
    if fruit == "banana":

This code will iterate through the fruits list and print out each element, except for "banana", which is skipped because of the continue statement.

In conclusion, mastering in Python is a crucial part of becoming a proficient programmer. With these easy code examples and a clear understanding of how Python executes and if statements, you will be well on your way to using Python 3 on your Mac and making it your default language.


are a crucial component of Python programming. They are designed to execute a specific task that can be called multiple times throughout a program. A function must be defined before it is called. It can be defined using the def keyword, followed by the function name, parentheses, and a colon. The code that should be executed is then indented. Here is an example:

def greeting(name):
    print(f"Hello, {name}!")

The above code defines a function called greeting that takes in one argument name and prints a personalized greeting. Once the function is defined, it can be called by entering the function name with the argument(s) enclosed in parentheses. For example:


This would output "Hello, John!" to the console.

It is important to note that can also return a value using the return keyword. For instance, a function that calculates the sum of two numbers might look like this:

def add_numbers(num1, num2):
    return num1 + num2

When this function is called, it will return the sum of the two numbers passed in as arguments. Here is an example:

result = add_numbers(5, 7)

This would output "12" to the console.

are incredibly useful in Python programming as they allow the programmer to write reusable and modular code. By defining specific tasks as , they can be called multiple times throughout a program without having to rewrite the same code over and over again.

Object-Oriented Programming

(OOP) is a programming paradigm that aims to model real-world objects and their interactions within a program. Python is an object-oriented language but its OOP support is different from other languages like Java or C++. In Python, everything is an object, and it supports classes, objects, inheritance, and polymorphism, all of which are the primary building blocks of .

In Python, creating a class is done using the class keyword followed by the class name. The class is defined using the __init__ method, which is called when an instance of the class is created. Methods are defined using the same syntax as functions, but they are defined within the class, and they have access to the class's properties and other methods.

Inheritance is another essential concept in OOP. In Python, inheritance is achieved by defining a new class that inherits the properties and methods of an existing class. The new class is called a subclass, and the existing class is called the superclass. The super() method is used to call a method in the superclass.

Polymorphism is the ability of objects to take on multiple forms. In Python, polymorphism is achieved using the same method or function name with different parameters. When called, Python will choose the appropriate method or function based on the type of object being passed to it.

Understanding in Python is crucial for building complex and reusable code. By mastering OOP, you'll be able to write more efficient, flexible, and scalable code that can solve many different problems.

File Handling

is an essential aspect of programming, and Python provides several built-in functions to handle files. In Python, you can read from and write to files using the open(), read(), write(), and close() methods.

The open() function is used to open a file and returns a file object that can be used to read or write data from the file. Here is an example of how to open a file and read its contents:

file = open('filename.txt', 'r')
content =

In the above example, we first opened the file filename.txt in read mode ('r'). We then read the contents of the file into a variable called content using the read() method. Finally, we printed the contents of the file and closed it using the close() method.

Similarly, to write data to a file, we can use the write() method as follows:

file = open('newfile.txt', 'w')
file.write('This is some text.')

In the above example, we created a new file called newfile.txt in write mode ('w'). We then used the write() method to write the text This is some text. to the file. Finally, we closed the file using the close() method.

It is important to note that when opening a file in write mode, if the file already exists, its contents will be overwritten. If you want to append data to the end of an existing file, you can open it in append mode ('a') as follows:

file = open('existingfile.txt', 'a')
file.write('This text will be appended.')

In the above example, we opened the file existingfile.txt in append mode ('a'). We then used the write() method to append the text This text will be appended. to the end of the file. Finally, we closed the file using the close() method.

In summary, is an essential aspect of programming, and Python provides several built-in functions to handle files. By using the open(), read(), write(), and close() methods, you can easily read from and write to files in Python.

Creating GUIs with Python

To create graphical user interfaces (GUIs) with Python, you can use a library called Tkinter. This library is included with Python, so you don't need to install any additional software. Tkinter provides a set of tools for creating windows, buttons, text boxes, labels, and other graphical elements in your applications.

To use Tkinter, you need to create a window object using the Tk() function. Then, you can add widgets to the window by calling methods on the window object. For example, you can create a button by calling the Button() method and passing in the window object as an argument. You can also specify the text to display on the button and the command to run when the button is clicked.

Here's an example of a simple Tkinter program that creates a window with a button:

import tkinter as tk

def on_button_click():
    print("Button clicked")

root = tk.Tk()

button = tk.Button(root, text="Click me", command=on_button_click)


In this example, we import the Tkinter library using the alias "tk". We define a function called "on_button_click" that will be called when the button is clicked. We create a window object called "root" using the Tk() function. We create a button object called "button" using the Button() method, passing in the window object, the text "Click me", and the function "on_button_click". Finally, we call the pack() method on the button to add it to the window, and call the mainloop() method on the window to start the event loop.

When you run this program, a window will appear with a button labeled "Click me". When you click the button, the message "Button clicked" will be printed to the console.

This is just a simple example, but Tkinter provides many other widgets and options for customizing the appearance of your GUIs. With a little practice, you can create professional-looking applications with Python and Tkinter.

Setting Python as the Default Language on Mac

To set Python as the default language on your Mac, you'll need to take a few simple steps. First, open your terminal and type in "nano .bash_profile". This will create a new profile for you to edit.

Next, you need to add the following code to the file: "export PATH=/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.8/bin:$PATH". This code tells the system to look for Python in a specific location and add it to your path.

Once you've added the code, save and close the file by pressing "control + X" and then "Y" to confirm your changes.

Next, close your terminal and reopen it to activate the changes. You can verify that Python is now your default language by typing "python" into the terminal. It should now use Python 3.8 instead of the default version that comes with your system.

By setting Python as your default language, you'll be able to quickly and easily run Python code without having to specify which version you want to use each time. This can save you time and make coding more efficient.


Congratulations, you have now mastered Python 3 on your Mac using these easy code examples! You have learned the basics of Python syntax, including variables, data types, and control flow structures such as if statements. You have also learned how to use input and output functions to interact with the user and how to create basic functions to perform specific tasks.

Remember to keep practicing and experimenting with different code examples to solidify your understanding and enhance your skills. Python is a powerful language, and you can do many exciting things with it, such as web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, and machine learning.

Finally, don't forget to make Python your default language on your Mac by following the steps we discussed earlier. This will ensure that every time you open your terminal, it will automatically use Python 3 as the default language. Enjoy the journey of Python programming and keep exploring!

As a seasoned software engineer, I bring over 7 years of experience in designing, developing, and supporting Payment Technology, Enterprise Cloud applications, and Web technologies. My versatile skill set allows me to adapt quickly to new technologies and environments, ensuring that I meet client requirements with efficiency and precision. I am passionate about leveraging technology to create a positive impact on the world around us. I believe in exploring and implementing innovative solutions that can enhance user experiences and simplify complex systems. In my previous roles, I have gained expertise in various areas of software development, including application design, coding, testing, and deployment. I am skilled in various programming languages such as Java, Python, and JavaScript and have experience working with various databases such as MySQL, MongoDB, and Oracle.
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