Introduction
The Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm, also known as Bresenham's Circle Drawing Algorithm, is a popular algorithm that is commonly used in the field of computer graphics to draw circles. This algorithm is named after its creator, Jack E. Bresenham, who introduced it in 1965. The algorithm is designed to draw circles in an efficient and accurate manner, and it is widely used in many of the applications and tools used in the field of computer graphics.
The algorithm works by drawing the circle in a series of pixels, starting from the center of the circle and moving outwards. The algorithm calculates the position of each pixel in the circle based on the position of the previous pixel, using a set of mathematical equations. In this article, we will look at how the Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm works, and provide some code examples to illustrate its use.
Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm
The Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm is based on the concept of a decision parameter, which is used to determine the next point to be drawn on the circle. The algorithm starts at the center of the circle, and then calculates the position of the first point on the circle based on the value of the decision parameter. The decision parameter is then updated for each subsequent pixel to be drawn, until the entire circle is completed.
The decision parameter is calculated using the following equation:
d = x^2 + y^2 – r^2
Where x and y represent the current pixel being drawn, and r is the radius of the circle. The value of the decision parameter is used to determine whether the next pixel to be drawn should be to the left, right, up, or down of the current pixel. If the value of the decision parameter is positive, then the next pixel should be to the left. If it is negative, then the next pixel should be to the right. If it is zero, then the next pixel should be above or below the current pixel.
The algorithm works by starting at the top of the circle and drawing each pixel in turn, moving clockwise around the circle. The algorithm calculates the position of each pixel based on the current pixel and the decision parameter, and draws the pixel in the appropriate position on the circle.
Code Example
To illustrate the Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm, we will provide some code examples in the C programming language. The following code will draw a circle with a radius of 50 pixels, centered at the point (250, 250) on the screen.
#include <graphics.h>
void circleMidpoint(int xCenter, int yCenter, int radius)
{
int x = 0, y = radius;
int p = 1 – radius;
while (x <= y)
{
putpixel(xCenter + x, yCenter + y, 7);
putpixel(xCenter  x, yCenter + y, 7);
putpixel(xCenter + x, yCenter  y, 7);
putpixel(xCenter  x, yCenter  y, 7);
putpixel(xCenter + y, yCenter + x, 7);
putpixel(xCenter  y, yCenter + x, 7);
putpixel(xCenter + y, yCenter  x, 7);
putpixel(xCenter  y, yCenter  x, 7);
if (p < 0)
{
x++;
p += 2 * x + 1;
}
else
{
x++; y;
p += 2 * (x  y) + 1;
}
}
}
int main()
{
int gd = DETECT, gm;
initgraph(&gd, &gm, "");
circleMidpoint(250, 250, 50);
getch();
closegraph();
return 0;
}
The code above uses the putpixel function to draw each pixel in turn, using a color value of 7 to indicate a filled pixel. The algorithm uses a while loop to iterate over all of the pixels in the circle, and calculates the position of each pixel based on the current pixel and the decision parameter.
Conclusion
The Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm is a simple yet powerful algorithm that is widely used in computer graphics to draw circles. This algorithm provides an efficient and accurate way to draw circles in a variety of applications and tools. By understanding the Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm and how it works, you can create your own code examples to implement this algorithm in your own projects.
here are some expanded explanations of the previous topics:
 Neural Networks
Neural networks are a type of machine learning algorithm that is modeled after the structure of the human brain. This algorithm has the ability to learn from data patterns and past experiences, and then apply that learning to new data. Neural networks are used in a wide range of applications, including image and speech recognition, natural language processing, and predictive analytics.
The structure of a neural network consists of an input layer, hidden layers, and an output layer. Each layer of the network is connected to the next layer through a set of weighted connections. During training, the network adjusts these weights to improve its accuracy in predicting outputs. Once trained, the network can be used to make predictions on new data.
 Binary Search
Binary search is a simple search algorithm that is used to find a specific value within a sorted array. This algorithm works by dividing the input array in half at each iteration, until the target value is found. Binary search is a fast algorithm, and has a worstcase time complexity of O(log n).
To perform a binary search, the input array must be sorted in order for the algorithm to work. The algorithm starts by calculating the midpoint of the array, and then compares the value at the midpoint to the target value. If the midpoint value is greater than the target, then the search is repeated on the left half of the array. If the midpoint value is less than the target, then the search is repeated on the right half of the array.
 Depth First Search
Depth First Search (DFS) is a graph traversal algorithm that is used to traverse all the vertices of a graph or tree. This algorithm starts at a designated vertex and explores as far as possible along each branch before backtracking. DFS is implemented using a stack data structure.
The algorithm works by visiting the first vertex in the graph, marking it as visited, and then visiting its neighbors. The neighbors are added to the stack in the order in which they are discovered. The algorithm continues to pop vertices from the stack and explore their neighbors until all the vertices in the graph have been visited.
DFS is often used in a variety of applications, such as finding connected components in a graph, solving puzzles, and exploring mazes.
 Dijkstra's Algorithm
Dijkstra's Algorithm is a shortestpath algorithm that is used to find the shortest path between two vertices in a graph. This algorithm works by maintaining a priority queue of vertices, and visiting each vertex in the order of their shortest path distance from the start vertex.
To perform Dijkstra's Algorithm, we start by initializing the shortest path distance of all vertices to infinity, except for the start vertex which is set to zero. We then visit the next vertex with the smallest shortest path distance, and update the shortest path distance of its neighbors. This process continues until the shortest path to the target vertex is found.
Dijkstra's Algorithm is commonly used in routing and pathfinding applications, such as finding the shortest distance between two locations on a map or network.
Popular questions

What is the Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm used for?
Answer: The Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm is used for drawing circles efficiently and accurately in computer graphics. 
Who is the creator of the Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm?
Answer: The Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm is named after Jack E. Bresenham, who introduced it in 1965. 
How does the algorithm determine where to draw the next pixel?
Answer: The algorithm uses a decision parameter, which is calculated based on the position of the previous pixel. The decision parameter is used to determine the position of the next pixel on the circle. 
What programming language is used in the code example provided in the article?
Answer: The code example provided in the article is written in the C programming language. 
What is the time complexity of the Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm?
Answer: The time complexity of the Midpoint Circle Drawing Algorithm is O(n), where n is the number of pixels in the circle. This algorithm has a linear time complexity, making it an efficient algorithm for drawing circles.
Tag
CircleAlgorithm