# negative index python with code examples

Negative Indexing in Python

In Python, an index is a positive or negative integer that is used to access elements in a list, tuple, or string. The first element of a sequence is at an index of 0, the second element at index 1, and so on. Negative indexing, on the other hand, allows you to access elements from the end of a sequence by using a negative number. In this article, we will be discussing negative indexing in Python and how it works with code examples.

Accessing Elements with Negative Indexing

In Python, the index -1 refers to the last element of a sequence, -2 refers to the second-to-last element, and so on. This is an incredibly useful feature, as it makes it easier to access elements from the end of a sequence without having to calculate the length of the sequence.

For example, consider the following list:

```numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
```

If you want to access the last element of this list, you can use the index -1:

```print(numbers[-1]) # Output: 5
```

Similarly, if you want to access the second-to-last element, you can use the index -2:

```print(numbers[-2]) # Output: 4
```

Slicing with Negative Indexing

In addition to accessing individual elements, negative indexing can also be used in slicing. Slicing allows you to extract a portion of a sequence, and negative indexing makes it easy to slice sequences from the end.

For example, consider the following list:

```numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
```

If you want to extract the last two elements of this list, you can use the following slice:

```print(numbers[-2:]) # Output: [4, 5]
```

Similarly, if you want to extract the first two elements of this list, you can use the following slice:

```print(numbers[:2]) # Output: [1, 2]
```

Negative indexing can also be used in combination with positive indexing to extract elements from anywhere in the sequence. For example, consider the following list:

```numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
```

If you want to extract the second and third elements of this list, you can use the following slice:

```print(numbers[1:-1]) # Output: [2, 3, 4]
```

Conclusion

In conclusion, negative indexing in Python is an incredibly useful feature that makes it easy to access elements from the end of a sequence. Whether you are accessing individual elements or slicing sequences, negative indexing can make your code more readable and efficient. By using negative indexing, you can save time and effort and write more concise and readable code.
String Indexing with Negative Indexing

In addition to lists and tuples, negative indexing can also be used with strings in Python. A string is essentially a sequence of characters, and negative indexing can be used to access individual characters or slices of characters from the end of the string.

For example, consider the following string:

```word = "hello"
```

If you want to access the last character of this string, you can use the index -1:

```print(word[-1]) # Output: 'o'
```

Similarly, if you want to access the second-to-last character, you can use the index -2:

```print(word[-2]) # Output: 'l'
```

Slicing with negative indexing works similarly for strings as it does for lists and tuples. For example, consider the following string:

```word = "hello"
```

If you want to extract the last two characters of this string, you can use the following slice:

```print(word[-2:]) # Output: 'lo'
```

And if you want to extract the first two characters of this string, you can use the following slice:

```print(word[:2]) # Output: 'he'
```

Reversing a Sequence with Negative Indexing

Negative indexing can also be used to reverse a sequence in Python. Reversing a sequence involves swapping the first and last elements, the second and second-to-last elements, and so on.

To reverse a sequence in Python, you can simply use the slice notation with a step of -1. For example, consider the following list:

```numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
```

To reverse this list, you can use the following slice:

```print(numbers[::-1]) # Output: [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
```

This works for strings as well. For example, consider the following string:

```word = "hello"
```

To reverse this string, you can use the following slice:

```print(word[::-1]) # Output: 'olleh'
```

Note that slicing with a step of -1 creates a new sequence that is a reversed version of the original sequence. The original sequence is unchanged.

In conclusion, negative indexing is a powerful and versatile feature in Python that makes it easier to access elements in sequences and manipulate sequences in a variety of ways. Whether you are accessing elements, slicing sequences, reversing sequences, or working with strings, negative indexing is a valuable tool to have in your toolkit.

## Popular questions

1. What is negative indexing in Python?

Negative indexing in Python is a way to access elements in sequences (such as lists, tuples, and strings) from the end rather than the start. Instead of counting from the first element (index 0), negative indexing starts counting from the last element and works backwards.

1. How do you access elements in a list using negative indexing?

To access an element in a list using negative indexing, simply use the index of the element, counting from the end of the list. For example:

```numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers[-1]) # Output: 5
print(numbers[-3]) # Output: 3
```
1. How do you slice a list using negative indexing?

To slice a list using negative indexing, simply use the slice notation, including negative indices for the start and end of the slice. For example:

```numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers[-3:-1]) # Output: [3, 4]
```
1. How do you reverse a list using negative indexing?

To reverse a list using negative indexing, simply use the slice notation with a step of -1. For example:

```numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
print(numbers[::-1]) # Output: [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
```
1. Can negative indexing be used with strings in Python?

Yes, negative indexing can be used with strings in Python. Strings are sequences of characters, and negative indexing can be used to access individual characters or slices of characters from the end of the string. For example:

```word = "hello"
print(word[-1]) # Output: 'o'
print(word[-2:]) # Output: 'lo'
```

### Tag

Indexing.

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