php mysql datetime format string with code examples

PHP and MySQL are two powerful programming languages that are commonly used in web development. One of the important aspects of web development is dealing with dates and times. In this article, we are going to discuss PHP MySQL datetime format string with code examples.

PHP MySQL Date and Time Data Types

MySQL supports the following date and time data types:

  • DATE: a date in the format YYYY-MM-DD
  • TIME: a time in the format HH:MI:SS
  • DATETIME: a date and time in the format YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS
  • TIMESTAMP: a timestamp in the format YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS
  • YEAR: a year in the format YYYY

PHP has its own date and time functions that work with these data types. Some of the important PHP date and time functions are:

  • date(): Returns a string representing the current date and time in the format given by the format parameter.
  • strftime(): Formats a local time/date according to locale settings using a format string.
  • strtotime(): Parses an English textual datetime description into a Unix timestamp.
  • time(): Returns the current Unix timestamp.

PHP MySQL datetime Format String

To format a date and time in PHP MySQL, we use the date function and the format string. The format string is a string of characters that represent the date format. Here are some of the format characters that we can use in PHP MySQL datetime format string:

  • Y: A four-digit representation of the year (e.g., 2021)
  • m: Numeric representation of a month, with leading zeros (e.g., 01 for January)
  • n: Numeric representation of a month, without leading zeros (e.g., 1 for January)
  • M: A short textual representation of a month, three letters (e.g., Jan)
  • F: A full textual representation of a month, such as January or March
  • d: Day of the month, 2 digits with leading zeros (e.g., 01 to 31)
  • j: Day of the month without leading zeros (e.g., 1 to 31)
  • D: A textual representation of a day, three letters (e.g., Mon)
  • l: A full textual representation of a day (Sunday through Saturday)
  • H: 24-hour format of an hour with leading zeros (e.g., 00 to 23)
  • h: 12-hour format of an hour with leading zeros (e.g., 01 to 12)
  • i: Minutes with leading zeros (e.g., 00 to 59)
  • s: Seconds with leading zeros (e.g., 00 to 59)
  • a: Lowercase Ante meridiem and Post meridiem (e.g., am or pm)

Code Examples

Let's take a look at some code examples of how we can format date and time in PHP MySQL using the format string.

Example 1: Display the current date and time in the format YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS

Output:

2021-03-16 14:20:57

Example 2: Display the current date in the format MMMM DD, YYYY

Output:

March 16, 2021

Example 3: Display the current time in the format hh:mi:ss am/pm

Output:

02:25:17 pm

Example 4: Convert a date and time string to the format YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS

Output:

2021-03-16 14:25:17

Conclusion

In conclusion, dealing with dates and times is a crucial part of web development. In PHP MySQL, we can use the date function and the format string to format date and time as per our requirements. The PHP date and time functions are extensive, and we can use them to manipulate dates and times in various ways. By using the examples given in this article, you can begin formatting date and time like a pro in PHP MySQL.

I can give you some additional information on the previous topics.

PHP Date and Time Functions

PHP has a wide range of functions to work with date and time. Here are some of the important PHP date and time functions you should be familiar with.

  • time()- This function returns the number of seconds passed since Epoch time (1st January 1970, 00:00:00 UTC).

  • date()- This function formats a local time/date according to a specified format. It returns a formatted string.

  • strtotime()- This function is used to convert a human-readable date/time string into a Unix timestamp (the number of seconds since Epoch time).

  • strftime()- This function is used to format a local time/date according to a specified format. It is similar to the date function but takes locale settings into account.

  • mktime()- This function returns a Unix timestamp for a date. You can pass the hour, minute, second, month, day, and year as parameters to this function.

  • strtotime() and date()- These two functions can be used together to convert a timestamp to a human-readable date/time string.

PHP Date and Time Format Strings

Format string is a string of characters that represents the date and time format. Here are some format characters that can be used in the PHP date and time format string.

  • Day of the week in text: 'l' (lowercase L)
  • Day of the week in abbreviated text: 'D'
  • Month in text: 'F'
  • Month in abbreviated text: 'M'
  • Month as a number with a leading zero: 'm'
  • Month as a number without a leading zero: 'n'
  • Year as a four-digit number: 'Y'
  • Year as a two-digit number: 'y'
  • Hour as a number with a leading zero in 24-hour format: 'H'
  • Hour as a number without a leading zero in 24-hour format: 'G'
  • Hour as a number with a leading zero in 12-hour format: 'h'
  • Hour as a number without a leading zero in 12-hour format: 'g'
  • Minutes as a number with a leading zero: 'i'
  • Seconds as a number with a leading zero: 's'
  • Timezone abbreviation: 'T'
  • Timezone offset in hours and minutes: 'O'
  • Timezone offset in hours: 'P'

MySQL Date and Time Functions

MySQL also provides a wide range of functions for working with date and time data types. Here are some of the important MySQL date and time functions you should be aware of.

  • NOW()- This function returns the current date and time as a datetime value.

  • DATE()- This function extracts the date part of a datetime value and returns it in a date format (YYYY-MM-DD).

  • TIME()- This function extracts the time part of a datetime value and returns it in a time format.

  • DATE_FORMAT()- This function formats a date according to the specified format string. It returns a formatted string.

  • TIMESTAMP()- This function converts a datetime value to Unix timestamp.

  • FROM_UNIXTIME()- This function converts a Unix timestamp to a datetime value.

MySQL Date and Time Format Strings

Format string is a string of characters that represents the date and time format. Here are some format characters that can be used in the MySQL date and time format string.

  • Year as a four-digit number: '%Y'
  • Year as a two-digit number: '%y'
  • Month as a number with leading zero: '%m'
  • Month as a number without leading zero: '%c'
  • Day of the month with leading zero: '%d'
  • Day of the month without leading zero: '%e'
  • Hour in 24-hour format with leading zero: '%H'
  • Hour in 12-hour format with leading zero: '%h'
  • Hour in 24-hour format without leading zero: '%k'
  • Hour in 12-hour format without leading zero: '%l'
  • Minutes with leading zero: '%i'
  • Seconds with leading zero: '%s'
  • AM or PM in uppercase: '%p'

In conclusion, both PHP and MySQL have a wide range of functions and format strings for working with date and time values. By using the examples and information provided in this article, you can easily manipulate date and time values to meet your needs in your applications.

Popular questions

  1. What is the purpose of a format string in PHP MySQL datetime?
    Answer: The purpose of a format string is to define the desired format for date and time values in PHP MySQL. It is a string of characters that represent different components of a date and time, and it is used in conjunction with date and time functions to format date and time values.

  2. What is the syntax for the date function in PHP?
    Answer: The syntax for the date function in PHP is as follows: date(format, timestamp). The format parameter is a string that specifies the desired format for the date and time, and the timestamp parameter is optional and specifies the Unix timestamp to be used. If the timestamp parameter is not provided, the current time will be used.

  3. How can you format a date and time value in the format YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS using PHP MySQL?
    Answer: You can format a date and time value in the format YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS using PHP MySQL by using the following code: echo date("Y-m-d H:i:s");

  4. What MySQL function can be used to format a date value?
    Answer: The MySQL function that can be used to format a date value is DATE_FORMAT(). It takes two parameters, the date value and the format string, and returns a formatted string. Example: SELECT DATE_FORMAT('2021-04-08', '%M %d, %Y');

  5. How can you convert a timestamp to a human-readable date and time string using PHP MySQL?
    Answer: You can convert a timestamp to a human-readable date and time string using PHP MySQL by using the functions strtotime() and date() together. Example: echo date("F j, Y, g:i a", strtotime("2021-04-08 09:00:00"));

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My passion for coding started with my very first program in Java. The feeling of manipulating code to produce a desired output ignited a deep love for using software to solve practical problems. For me, software engineering is like solving a puzzle, and I am fully engaged in the process. As a Senior Software Engineer at PayPal, I am dedicated to soaking up as much knowledge and experience as possible in order to perfect my craft. I am constantly seeking to improve my skills and to stay up-to-date with the latest trends and technologies in the field. I have experience working with a diverse range of programming languages, including Ruby on Rails, Java, Python, Spark, Scala, Javascript, and Typescript. Despite my broad experience, I know there is always more to learn, more problems to solve, and more to build. I am eagerly looking forward to the next challenge and am committed to using my skills to create impactful solutions.

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