Python is a popular programming language for various applications as it is versatile, easy to learn and implement, and has a vast range of libraries. One such powerful library that Python has to offer is the turtle graphics library. This library enables the programmer to draw and create visual illustrations using a virtual turtle on a display window.
In this article, we will explore the turtle example in Python with code examples. We’ll start by understanding the basics of the turtle graphics library, and then we will dive into the different functionalities that this library has to offer.
Basics of Turtle Graphics
Turtle graphics is an interactive programming environment that helps to teach the principles of programming and geometry. It involves creating drawings and shapes by using a virtual turtle, which can be manipulated through different commands to create different shapes and patterns.
The turtle library has several builtin features that can be used to generate a wide range of shapes and patterns. Some of the features are:
 Drawing lines of different lengths and in different directions
 Rotating the turtle to change its directions
 Drawing circles, polygons, and other shapes
 Setting the color and style of the turtle and the lines it draws
To use the turtle library, we need to import it as a module in our Python environment.
import turtle
Once imported, we can create a turtle object using the below command:
t = turtle.Turtle()
This command creates a turtle object named t
that we can use to execute different commands on.
Drawing Basic Shapes with Turtle Graphics
Now that we have created our turtle object, let's start by drawing some basic shapes.
 Square
To draw a square, first, we need to move the turtle to the starting position, then draw four sides of equal length, as shown below:
t.penup()
t.goto(100,50)
t.pendown()
for i in range(4):
t.forward(100)
t.right(90)
In the above code, we first raise the pen to avoid drawing lines while moving the turtle to (100,50). Then, we put the pen down to start drawing and use a for
loop to draw four sides of equal length and right angles.
 Triangle
To draw a triangle, we need to follow a similar approach to that of the square, except that we need to draw three sides instead of four, as shown below:
t.penup()
t.goto(0,50)
t.pendown()
for i in range(3):
t.forward(100)
t.right(120)
Again, we first raise the pen to avoid drawing lines while moving the turtle to (0,50). Then we put the pen down to start drawing and use a for
loop to draw three sides of equal length and angles of 120 degrees.
Advanced Shapes with Turtle Graphics
Now that we have learned how to draw basic shapes using Python's turtle graphics library let’s move a step ahead and explore some of the advanced shapes that we can draw with this library.
 Circle
To draw a circle, we can use the circle()
method provided by the turtle library. We need to specify the radius of the circle, as shown below:
t.penup()
t.goto(0,50)
t.pendown()
t.circle(50)
In the above code, we first raise the pen to avoid drawing lines while moving the turtle to (0,50). Then, we put the pen down and use the circle()
method to draw a circle with a radius of 50 units.
 Spiral
To draw a spiral, we can use the forward()
and right()
methods provided by the turtle library. We need to increase the distance moved by the turtle and angle rotated after each step, as shown below:
t.penup()
t.goto(100,100)
t.pendown()
length = 5
for i in range(60):
t.forward(length)
t.right(15)
length += 5
In the above code, we first raise the pen to avoid drawing lines while moving the turtle to (100,100). Then, we put the pen down and use a for
loop to keep moving the turtle forward and rotating it by 15 degrees at each step. After each step, we increase the distance moved by 5 units to create a spiral.
 Polygon
To draw a polygon, we can use the forward()
and right()
methods provided by the turtle library in a loop. We can change the angle rotated after each step to create a polygon with a different number of sides, as shown below:
t.penup()
t.goto(100,100)
t.pendown()
sides = 6
angle = 360/sides
for i in range(sides):
t.forward(70)
t.right(angle)
In the above code, we first raise the pen to avoid drawing lines while moving the turtle to (100,100). Then, we put the pen down and use a for
loop to keep moving the turtle forward and rotating it by 60 degrees at each step. This creates a polygon with six sides.
Conclusion
In this article, we explored the turtle example in Python with code examples. We learned how to draw basic shapes such as squares and triangles and advanced shapes such as circles, spirals and polygons with the Python turtle graphics library.
Python turtle graphics is a fun, interactive, and easy way to learn basic programming principles such as loops, conditionals, and basic geometry. Moreover, it can be instrumental in building compelling and interactive graphical interfaces. Happy coding!
let's dive a bit deeper into the previous topics we covered in the article.
 Drawing Basic Shapes with Turtle Graphics
In addition to squares and triangles, we can also draw other basic shapes such as rectangles, pentagons, and hexagons with the turtle graphics library. The approach for drawing these shapes is similar to that of the square and triangle. We need to move the turtle to the starting position, then draw the sides of the shape using a loop. For example, to draw a rectangle, we can use:
t.penup()
t.goto(100,50)
t.pendown()
for i in range(2):
t.forward(150)
t.right(90)
t.forward(100)
t.right(90)
In the above code, we first move the turtle to (100,50), then draw two horizontal sides of length 150 and two vertical sides of length 100 to create a rectangle.
 Advanced Shapes with Turtle Graphics
In addition to circles, spirals, and polygons, we can use the turtle graphics library to draw other advanced shapes such as stars, arcs, and curves. These shapes require more complex code and mathematics, but the turtle graphics library provides functions and methods to make it easy to draw them.
For example, to draw a star, we can use the forward()
and right()
methods in a loop, rotating the turtle by 144 degrees (1/5th of a full circle) after each step. We can also change the distance moved by the turtle at each step to create a star of a different size. The code to draw a star of size 100 units is as follows:
t.penup()
t.goto(0,0)
t.pendown()
size = 100
for i in range(5):
t.forward(size)
t.right(144)
t.forward(size)
t.left(72)
In the above code, we first move the turtle to (0,0), then use a for
loop to move the turtle forward and right by 144 degrees at each step to create a star.
 Customizing the Turtle
One of the powerful features of the turtle graphics library is that we can customize the turtle and the lines it draws. We can change the color, size, and shape of the turtle as well as the color, width, and style of the lines it draws.
To change the color of the turtle, we can use the color()
method, which takes two arguments: the fill color and the outline color. For example, to change the turtle to a blue fill with a green outline, we can use:
t.color("blue", "green")
To change the size and shape of the turtle, we can use the shapesize()
method, which takes three arguments: the stretch factor in the xdirection, the stretch factor in the ydirection, and the outline width. For example, to increase the size of the turtle by a factor of two and decrease the outline width, we can use:
t.shapesize(2, 2, 1)
To change the color, width, and style of the lines drawn by the turtle, we can use the pencolor()
, pensize()
, and pencapstyle()
methods. For example, to draw red lines with a width of 5 units and a square cap style, we can use:
t.pencolor("red")
t.pensize(5)
t.pencapstyle("square")
These are just a few examples of the ways we can customize the turtle and the lines it draws. With the turtle graphics library, the possibilities are endless.
Conclusion
Python turtle graphics is an excellent library for creating visual illustrations and teaching basic programming principles. By using loops, conditionals, and basic geometry, we can generate a wide range of shapes and patterns with the turtle. Furthermore, with functions and methods for customization, we can create compelling and interactive graphical interfaces. By exploring different examples and experimenting with the turtle graphics library, we can gain a deeper understanding of programming and develop excellent skills.
Popular questions

What is the turtle library in Python?
Answer: The turtle library is a graphics library in Python that allows the creation of visual illustrations using a virtual turtle on a display window. 
How do you create a turtle object in Python?
Answer: To create a turtle object, we first import the turtle library and then create a turtle object using the below command:
import turtle
t = turtle.Turtle()
 How do you draw a circle in Python using the turtle graphics library?
Answer: To draw a circle, we can use thecircle()
method provided by the turtle library. We need to specify the radius of the circle, as shown below:
t.penup()
t.goto(0,50)
t.pendown()
t.circle(50)

How do you customize the turtle and the lines it draws in Python using the turtle graphics library?
Answer: To customize the turtle, we can use thecolor()
andshapesize()
methods to change the color, size, and shape of the turtle. To customize the lines, we can use thepencolor()
,pensize()
, andpencapstyle()
methods to change the color, width, and style of the lines it draws. 
What are some advanced shapes that can be drawn with the turtle graphics library in Python?
Answer: Some of the advanced shapes that can be drawn using the turtle graphics library are stars, arcs, and curves. These shapes require more complex code and mathematics, but the turtle graphics library provides functions and methods to make it easy to draw them.
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